Have you ever wondered what our calendar is the way it is, with 12 months and 365 days? In ancient times, many of the discoveries and inventions were made in the city of Rome. Romans invented the calendar we use today, however, it was inaccurate and did not follow the seasons. So, the emperor Julius Caesar made some corrections and improved it to the version we know today. One that is based on the Sun, has 365 days and 12 months and matches the season.
Now that we know something about Julius Caesar, let’s learn about who he really was. Gaius Julius Caesar was born in July, 100 BC in Suburra, the city of Rome. His parents were nobles in the city. They were well-known, but not rich. As a young boy, Julius Caesar started his education at the young age of six and learned important skills from his tutor. He was taught to develop excellent speaking skills and exceptional leadership qualities. It was only because his parents wanted him to become a noble just like them and even become a King, someday.
By the time he turned sixteen, his father passed away and he became the head of household. All the responsibilities of the house were now his and he had to represent his house in the court of nobles. At the age of seventeen, Julius got married to Cornelia, the daughter of a powerful politician. During that time, there was a fight between his two uncles. Julius didn’t want to fight with his family members and thought that it was foolish. So, to escape the fight, he joined the army and left Rome.
Julius fought many wars and became a brave warrior who started getting recognition in the army. Quickly, he began to reach higher ranks in the government. He made friends with many influential leaders namely Crassus who was a wealthy businessman and General Pompey, who was the best military commander back then. Influential means having power and wealth. By the time Caesar returned to Rome, he was famous among the people and was loved widely due to his victories and good speaking skills.
By the age of forty, he was elected as the consul. Consul was the uppermost rank in the Roman government, similar to a president. He remained in this position for one year. Then, he was appointed the governor of a province named Gaul. As a result, he was granted four legions. Legions are large groups of soldiers in the military who protect the cities and during wars, fight the battles.
Julius was an extraordinary general. Gaul was surrounded by tribes who did not live according to the Roman rule. The military feared them as they had a very strong army. However, the troops were divided among themselves and fought with each other. Taking advantage of their internal conflict, Caesar led his troops into battle against them and became victorious. Due to his smart thinking, he managed to conquer all of Gaul. His strategic insight gained him the respect of his army. Strategic insight means the someone’s ability to find solutions to big problems. After his success, Julius Caesar was considered to be as good in war strategy as the great General Pompey. Nowadays, historians consider him as one of the best military commanders in history.
While he was in position as governor, the politics in Rome became very aggressive. Many leaders started to dislike Julius Caesar because of his success. Even General Pompey, who used to be a good friend of Julius became jealous. This jealousy turned hostile and the two old friends turned into big rivals. While Julius Caesar was supported and loved by the people, Pompey had the support of the corrupt people who were actually nobles and rich businessmen.
Caesar then decided to run for consul again. He announced his intentions to gain the support of his people but the Roman Senate was against him. A Senate is a house for the noble people to make decisions for the city. Because they didn’t like him, the Senate asked Julius to give up his post as the General of the Army. It was a dreadful demand! Hence, Caesar refused. The government could not accept that he had dared to defy them so they called him a traitor of the nation.
Both sides declared war. This was the Great Civil War of Rome that lasted four years. Caesar began marching his army towards Rome to fight against the Senate. General Pompey was leading the soldiers of the Senate. Caesar won the battle and gained total control of Rome. He kept fighting Pompey till he finally defeated him eighteen months later. By this time, he had managed to chase him all the way to Egypt. Pompey fled to save his life but was unfortunately captured by the Pharaoh who had him executed and presented to Julius Caesar as a gift. The Pharaohs were the ancient rulers of Egypt.
This victory in war made Julius Caesar the most powerful man in the world. He returned to his home, the Roman Empire, in 46 BC. He managed to crush everyone who resisted him in the government and was appointed “Dictator Perpetuo” which means “dictator forever”. When he came to power, Rome was suffering from financial (or money) issues because of the wars it was always fighting. It was very expensive to wage war and sent all of the workers off to battle. Julius changed the government and made improvements for the poor. He even passed various laws, ultimately bringing Rome back to its former glory.
Julius Caesar made countless great changes to Rome and transformed it into the magnificent city it is today. He ordered the rebuilding of the great city Carthage which was destroyed in the Punic wars. It was a part of ancient civilization and later became the second largest city in Rome.
One of his best achievements was the Julian Calendar which is the basis for our calendar we use today. Not only was he a warrior, he was very learned. He was also said to be one of the best writers in Rome. He wrote several poems and many books. One of his books, the first text was assigned to students of Latin.
On March 15, 44 BC some people of Rome, including other leaders in the government, were unhappy with his rule. They thought that he was too powerful and he would destroy the Roman Empire, which was based on a republic, ruled by a group of leaders rather than one. So they decided to put an end to his rule. Cassius and Brutus, Julius’s two best friends led the plot to assassinate him. When Julius Caesar entered the senate, they crept up to him and murdered him in cold blood. His death is still remembered today on 15th March as the Ides of March.
Julius Caesar was very ambitious, which means he worked very hard to be smart and strong so he could become powerful in his country. He increased his power through violence and eventually took control over all of Rome. Historical people like Julius have many sides, which means they do some good things, but also some bad things as well. Take some time to reflect on this and think of people you know who may have good traits and not so good traits. But regardless, Julius Caesar will go down in history as one of the most influential leaders of all time.